Ceftizoxime is a third generation aminothiazolyl cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity, most active against gram-negative bacteria and nosocomially acquired pathogens. Ceftizoxime sodium caused significant extent of lipid peroxidation. The in vitro antibacterial activity of ceftizoxime (Cefizox) is influenced by the ambient pH of the medium. This pH-dependent activity was observed when either the assay discs or the assay medium were buffered.
It has excellent beta-lactamase stability, with good in vitro activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ceftizoxime, like the penicillins, is a beta-lactam antibiotic. By binding to specific penicillin- binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, it inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that ceftizoxime interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
For the conventional disc agar-diffusion assay, using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, the medium buffered to pH 6 had definite advantage for measuring potency and activity. In serial dilution assay, the acidic (pH 6) medium gives better MIC values with Staphylococcus aureus strains. In the case of Escherichia coli strains, the pH of the medium (6, 7.3 and 8) appears to be of less significance.
Toxicity: LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): ≈6000 i.v. (Fukuhara).
Store 2-8°C. Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well- ventilated place.
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